Overweight and Obesity | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Overweight and obesity are conditions caused by an increase in the size and amount of fat cells in the body. They cause problems like heart. Obesity is a term used to describe somebody who is very overweight with a high degree of body fat. The condition is increasing in UK adults. Find out how being very overweight can affect your fertility and your Work out your due date . Risks to you of being overweight in pregnancy; Risks to the baby if you're and a BMI of 30 or above means you're very overweight, or obese.
If you're obese and you're considering getting pregnant, talk to your health care provider. He or she might recommend a daily prenatal vitamin and refer you to other health care providers — such as a registered dietitian or an obesity specialist — who can help you reach a healthy weight before pregnancy. Seek regular prenatal care. Prenatal visits can help your health care provider monitor your health and your baby's health.
Tell your health care provider about any medical conditions you have — such as diabetes, high blood pressure or sleep apnea — and discuss what you can do to manage them.
Eat a healthy diet. Work with your health care provider or a registered dietitian to maintain a healthy diet and avoid excessive weight gain. Keep in mind that during pregnancy, you'll need more folic acid, calcium, iron and other essential nutrients.
A daily prenatal vitamin can help fill any gaps. Consult your health care provider if you have special nutritional needs due to a health condition, such as diabetes. Consult your health care provider about safe ways to stay physically active during your pregnancy, such as walking, swimming or doing low-impact aerobics.
If you smoke, ask your health care provider to help you quit. Alcohol and illicit drugs are off-limits, too. Get your health care provider's OK before you start or stop taking any medications or supplements.
Obesity during pregnancy can increase the risk of complications for you and your baby. To ease your anxiety, work closely with your health care provider. Cancer occurs when cells in one part of the body, such as the colon, grow abnormally or out of control. The cancerous cells sometimes spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Gaining weight as an adult increases the risk for several cancers, even if the weight gain doesn't result in overweight or obesity. It isn't known exactly how being overweight increases cancer risk.
Fat cells may release hormones that affect cell growth, leading to cancer. Also, eating or physical activity habits that may lead to being overweight may also contribute to cancer risk. Avoiding weight gain may prevent a rise in cancer risk.Obese Teenagers Who Lose Weight at Risk for Developing Eating Disorders
Healthy eating and physical activity habits may lower cancer risk. Weight loss may also lower your risk, although studies have been inconclusive. What kinds of cancers are linked to overweight and obesity? Being overweight increases the risk of developing certain cancers, including the following5: Sleep apnea is a condition in which a person has one or more pauses in breathing during sleep. A person who has sleep apnea may suffer from daytime sleepiness, difficulty focusing, and even heart failure.
How is sleep apnea linked to overweight? Obesity is the most important risk factor for sleep apnea. A person who is overweight may have more fat stored around his or her neck. This may make the airway smaller. A smaller airway can make breathing difficult or loud because of snoringor breathing may stop altogether for short periods of time.
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In addition, fat stored in the neck and throughout the body may produce substances that cause inflammation. Inflammation in the neck is a risk factor for sleep apnea. Weight loss usually improves sleep apnea. Weight loss may help to decrease neck size and lessen inflammation.
Osteoarthritis What is osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is a common health problem that causes pain and stiffness in your joints. Osteoarthritis is often related to aging or to an injury, and most often affects the joints of the hands, knees, hips, and lower back. How is osteoarthritis linked to overweight? Being overweight is one of the risk factors for osteoarthritis, along with joint injury, older age, and genetic factors.
Extra weight may place extra pressure on joints and cartilage the hard but slippery tissue that covers the ends of your bones at a jointcausing them to wear away. In addition, people with more body fat may have higher blood levels of substances that cause inflammation. Inflamed joints may raise the risk for osteoarthritis. For those who are overweight or obese, losing weight may help reduce the risk of developing osteoarthritis.
Weight loss of at least 5 percent of your body weight may decrease stress on your knees, hips, and lower back and lessen inflammation in your body. If you have osteoarthritis, losing weight may help improve your symptoms.
Health Risks of Being Overweight | NIDDK
Research also shows that exercise is one of the best treatments for osteoarthritis. Exercise can improve mood, decrease pain, and increase flexibility. Fatty Liver Disease What is fatty liver disease? Fatty liver diseasealso known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis NASHoccurs when fat builds up in the liver and causes injury. Fatty liver disease may lead to severe liver damage, cirrhosis scar tissueor even liver failure. Fatty liver disease usually produces mild or no symptoms.
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It is like alcoholic liver disease, but it isn't caused by alcohol and can occur in people who drink little or no alcohol. How is fatty liver disease linked to overweight? The cause of fatty liver disease is still not known. This is true for men or women. While Asian men and women have the lowest rates of unhealthy BMIs, they may have high amounts of unhealthy fat in the abdomen. Samoans may be at risk for overweight and obesity because they may carry a DNA variant that is associated with increased BMI but not with common obesity-related complications.
Sex In the United States, obesity is more common in black or Hispanic women than in black or Hispanic men. This is an endocrine condition that causes large ovaries and prevents proper ovulation, which can reduce fertility. Screening for a high or increasing body mass index BMI To screen for overweight and obesity, doctors measure BMI using calculations that depend on whether you are a child or an adult.
A healthy weight for adults is usually when your BMI is Body mass index BMI is used to determine if you or your child are underweight, healthy, or overweight or obese. Children are underweight if their BMI is below the 5th percentile, healthy weight if their BMI is between the 5th to less than the 85th percentile, overweight if their BMI is the 85th percentile to less than the 95th percentile, and obese if their BMI is the 95th percentile or above.
Adults are underweight if their BMI is below Healthy lifestyle changes to prevent overweight and obesity If your BMI indicates you are getting close to being overweight, or if you have certain risk factorsyour doctor may recommend you adopt healthy lifestyle changes to prevent you from becoming overweight and obese.
Changes include healthy eating, being physically active, aiming for a healthy weightand getting healthy amounts of sleep. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications There are no specific symptoms of overweight and obesity. The signs of overweight and obesity include a high body mass index BMI and an unhealthy body fat distribution that can be estimated by measuring your waist circumference.
Obesity can cause complications in many parts of your body. Unhealthy body fat distribution Another sign of overweight and obesity is having an unhealthy body fat distribution. Fatty tissue is found in different parts of your body and has many functions. An increased waist circumference is a sign of obesity and can increase your risk for obesity-related complications.