Sancta Missa - The Divine Office: A Study of the Roman Breviary By Rev. E.J. Quigley
Lauds remains the true morning prayer, which hails in the rising sun, the . as Vespers and Lauds, because it is the grandest and most sublime of the little Hours. . Even the date of the introduction of collects into the Divine Office is doubtful. .. Online Tutorial for Priests | Rubrics of the Roman Missal | Learning to. You can download and read online Lauds And Vespers file PDF . Schedules Date 11 24 4 00 pm 4 30 pm Print Email Google Outlook. In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of periods consisted of eight daily prayer events, including lauds, prime, terce, sext, none, vespers, .. also, occasionally, specific days of the week that fall near specific calendar dates, e.g., the Sunday before the Exaltation of the Cross.
This also explains the shortness of the older collects. They are not the prayer itself, but its conclusion. One short sentence summed up the petitions of the people. It is only since the original meaning of the collect has been forgotten that it has become itself a long petition with various references and clauses compare the collects for the Sundays after Pentecost with those of modern feasts — Cath.
The following examples which are not extreme, may help to make clear and emphatic the matter of the shortness of the old and the length of the new collects. Through our Lord" Collect of St. In Vespers and Lauds the collect is said after the antiphons of the Magnificat and Benedictus, unless the Preces q.
Then the Preces are said after the antiphons, and the collects follow after them immediately. The collect of a ferial Office is found in Office of the previous Sunday, except in ferias of Lent and Rogation days which have special and proper collects. At Prime and the other Hours the collect is said after the little respond, unless the Preces be recited.
They precede the collect. At Compline the collect is said after the antiphon Salva nos if the Preces be not recited. At Prime and Compline the collects of the Psalter are never changed except during the last three days of Holy Week. In this triduum, in all hours up to and including None on Holy Saturday the collect is said after the Psalm Miserere. Before reciting the collect in the Office, everyone in deacon's orders or in priesthood says Dominus vobiscum, Et cum spiritu tuo, and this is said even if the Office be said privately.
All others reciting the Office say Domine exaudi orationem meam. Et clamor meus ad te veniat. Then the word Oremus is prefixed to the recitation of the collect, and at the end, Amen is said. If there be only one collect, the Dominus vobiscum or the Domine exaudi with the responses Et cum spiritu tuo; Et clamor meus ad te veniat is repeated after the Amen.
But if there be more than one collect, before each is said its corresponding antiphon and versicle and also the word, Oremus. After the last collect is said, the Dominus vobiscum and Et cum spiritu tuo are repeated.
This latter verse is not a constant sequel to the Benedicamus, as we see in Prime, where the verse Pretiosa succeeds it; and again in Compline it is succeeded by Benedicat et custodiet.
The concluding words of the prayers or collects vary. If the prayer is addressed to God the Father, the concluding words are Per Dominum see the collects given above. If the prayer be addressed to God the Son, the concluding words are Qui vivis et regnas—e. Qui vivis et regnas Collect for St.
Peter Nolasco's feast, 3ist January. If in the beginning of the prayer mention is made of God the Son, the ending should be Per eundem, e. Per eundem Dominum collect for feast, 8th October. But if the mention of God the Son is made near the end of the collect, the ending is Qui tecum vivit et regnal, e.
Genitricis Filii tui Domini nostri intercessione salvemur: Qui tecum vivit et regnat" collect of Assumption, 15th August. If the name of the Holy Ghost occur in the prayer, the conclusion is, In unitate ejusdem Spiritus sancti, e. The following lines, giving the rules for terminations, are well known and are useful, as a help to the memory: Dominus vobiscum is said before the first collect only, but each collect is preceded by the word Oremus, unless in the Office for the Dead.
Explanation of the Rubric. Where a feast is transferred either occasionally or always and its collect contains words such as Hanc diem, hodiernom diem, it is not allowed to change the wording, without permission of the Congregation of Rites S. If the collect of a commemoration be of the same form as the prayer of the feast, the former is taken from the common of saints, in proper place.
Morning Prayer (Lauds)
This salutation is of great antiquity. It was the greeting of Booz to his harvestmen Ruth, ii. The prophet used the selfsame salutation to Azas. It was blessed and honoured by our Lord Himself, when to His apostles he said "Ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus" St. This beautiful salutation passed into Church liturgy at an early date, probably in apostolic times. Its use in liturgy was mentioned at the Council of Bragaand it is found in the Sacramentarium Gelasianum sixth century. These words are called the divine salutation.
They mean that the priest who utters them is at peace with all clergy and people and thus wishes God to remain with them—the highest and holiest of wishes. For the presence of God, Who is the source of every good and the author of every best gift, is a certain pledge of divine protection and of that peace and consolation which the world cannot give. This formula is used even in private recitation of the Office, as the priest prays in union with and in the name of the Church.
The words Et cum spiritu tuo add a new and further significance to the salutation; for it is the spirit, the human soul, that prays, and when the spirit prays in the name of the Church for her children, its work is a work of high spiritual order, demanding the use of all the soul's powers, Oremus. This exhortation is of very great antiquity, and in this form is found in the liturgies of St. James and of St. In those days it was said by the priest in a loud voice.
Vespers (Evening Prayer)
The priest, the mediator, following the example of the great Mediator, Christ, calls others to join with him in prayer. Augustine tells us, that sometimes after pronouncing the word Oremus, the priest paused for a while and the people prayed in silence, and then the priest "collected" the united prayers of the congregation and offered them to God, hence the name collect St.
Augustine, Epistlecf. Prayer is addressed generally to God the Father. This practice is in accordance with the example and doctrine of Christ, "Father, I give Thee thanks" St. John, xi, 41 ; "Amen, amen, I say to you; if you ask the Father anything in My name, he will give it to you" St.
However, with the advent of the early heresies, it became necessary to formulate prayers witnessing the divinity of Christ and His equality in all things to the Father and the Holy Ghost. In some of the great prayers of the liturgy, the three Persons of the Holy Trinity are named to show their equality and unity of nature and substance.
Nearly all the prayers of this kind are the products of the Church during the storms of early heresy against the divinity, nature or personality of Christ. Hence, in every collect, we may distinguish five parts: It has reference, generally, to the need of the petitions and is marked usually with the word ut.
Two inflections, a greater and a lesser, occur in the body of the prayer, the greater for the most part coming at the close of the 'motive,' while the lessor concludes the 'petition' and produces the purpose of the prayer. When the prayers are correctly printed, as in the authentic 'Missale Romanum,' the place of the inflexions is indicated by a colon, 'punctum principals,' and a semicolon, 'semi-punctum,' respectively.
These steps, it will he observed, indicate, not precisely 'breaks in the sense' as Haberl incorrectly says but rather the logical divisions of the sentence, which is not quite the same thing" Father Lucas, S. The question is often asked, why Dominus vobiscum is said after the collect, or prayer.
Writers on liturgy reply that it is so placed because Christ frequently used the salutation Pax vobis, and the priest in public prayer holds the place of Christ, and as he, the priest, used this formula of salvation before the collect to obtain the spirit of prayer and the grace of God, he repeats it so that these gifts may be retained.
Vespers - Wikipedia
In the collects, the fatherland of the saints is rarely found, because the saints' true home and fatherland is heaven, where they were born again to life eternal, and their fatherland is not this valley of exile where they spent their temporal life. Nor are their surnames given in the collects see the collect of St. Jane Frances Fremiot de Chantel given on p. But it is not infrequent in the collects to find certain appellations characterising a saint or noting some special prerogative or wonderful gift of grace.
The Church's collects record the wonderful gifts of St. John Chrysostom "the golden-mouthed"St. Peter Chrysologus "qui ob auream ejus eloquentiam Chrysologi cognomen adeptus est" Rom. Sometimes the nation or earthly home of a saint is given in a collect to distinguish one saint from another. This is seen in the case of saints bearing the name of Mary, which if used absolutely or unqualifiedly refers to the Mother of God.
See the collects for St. Mary of Egypt, etc.
The collect or prayer is placed at the end of the Hours to collect or gather up the fruits of all the prayers that precede; to beg from God that His grace may follow our actions as it precedes them; that the prayer may be a shield and buckler against all temptations which may be encountered. The prayers at Prime and at Compline never vary, to remind us, the old writers tell us, that all our acts should be invariably referred to God.
In the early ages of the Church, all public prayers, both in Mass and in Office were offered up by both priests and people with outstretched arms. This practice is observed still, in a certain way, in Mass. Benedicamus is the prayer to thank God for all His graces.
This prayer is said after every Hour, unless where the hour is said in choir and followed immediately by Mass. It Is omitted, too, before the Litany. These are prayers which are said at some of canonical Hours, before the collect or oratio. They commence with Kyrie eleison or Pater Noster. They consist of versicles and responses and these differ from other versicles and responses, which are generally historic, e. But the versicles and responses of the preces are always a call to God or an exhortation to praise God e.
These prayers are of great antiquity, mention of them being found in the works of Amalare ninth century. In the new Breviary nine short prayers are given in the Preces—the six former prayers being retained and three new ones, Pro Papa; Pro antistite; Pro benefactoribus, being added.
The Miserere is omitted. The same additions were made in Lauds and the Psalm, De Profundis omitted. In Prime and the Little Hours, the preces are unchanged standing in the new Breviary as in the old. The preces feriales at Lauds and Vespers are the same in structure. They have the same structure in Terce, Sext, None, but differ in character.
Canonical hours - Wikipedia
The preces dominicales at Prime and Compline have a form of their own, additions being made in the preces of Prime when said on a feria. At Compline, Preces Dominicales are said on all i semi-doubles, ii simples, iii all Ferias, unless at Vespers a double or an octave was celebrated.
By 60 AD, the Didachethe oldest known liturgical manual for Christians, recommended disciples to pray the Lord's Prayer three times a day; this practice found its way into the canonical hours as well. Pliny the Younger 63 — c. The prayers could be prayed individually or in groups. Middle Ages[ edit ] A sundial showing the four Tides and five Canonical hours, based on the example on the Bewcastle Cross As the form of fixed-hour prayer developed in the Christian monastic communities in the East and West, the Offices grew both more elaborate and more complex, but the basic cycle of prayer still provided the structure for daily life in monasteries.
By the fourth century, the elements of the canonical hours were more or less established. For secular non-monastic clergy and lay people, the fixed-hour prayers were by necessity much shorter, though in many churches, the form of the fixed-hour prayers became a hybrid of secular and monastic practice sometimes referred to as 'cathedral' and 'monastic' models.
In the East, the development of the Divine Services shifted from the area around Jerusalem to Constantinople. In particular, Theodore the Studite c. In the West, the Rule of Saint Benedict was modeled his guidelines for the prayers on the customs of the basilicas of Rome. It was he who expounded the concept in Christian prayer of the inseparability of the spiritual life from the physical life. Benedict set down the dictum Ora et labora — "Pray and work".
As the Divine Office grew more important in the life of the Church, the rituals became more elaborate. Praying the Office already required various books, such as a Psalter for the psalms, a lectionary to find the assigned Scripture reading for the day, a Bible to proclaim the reading, a hymnal for singing, etc. As parishes grew in the Middle Ages away from cathedrals and basilicas, a more concise way of arranging the hours was needed. So, a sort of list developed called the breviarywhich gave the format of the daily office and the texts to be used.
The Franciscans sought a one-volume breviary for their friars to use during travels, so the order adopted the Breviarium Curiaebut substituting the Gallican Rite Psalter for the Roman. The Franciscans gradually spread this breviary throughout Europe. By the 14th century, the breviary contained the entire text of the canonical hours.
Should anyone, however, presume to commit such an act, he should know that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. Pope Urban VIII made further changes, including "a profound alteration in the character of some of the hymns. Although some of them without doubt gained in literary style, nevertheless, to the regret of many, they also lost something of their old charm of simplicity and fervour.
Pope Pius XII also began reforming the Roman Breviary, allowing use of a new translation of the Psalms and establishing a special commission to study a general revision, with a view to which all the Catholic bishops were consulted in Liturgy of the Hours Following the Second Vatican Councilthe Catholic Church's Roman Rite simplified the observance of the canonical hours and sought to make them more suited to the needs of today's apostolate and accessible to the laity, hoping to restore their character as the prayer of the entire Church.