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The Ruodlieb, an anonymous narrative poem dating from the 11th century, is widely Latin text with facing-page English translation, introduction and notes. .. The Force of Habit (La fuerza de la costumbre) by Guillén de Castro · Is gender. X. La Fortaleza's Daily Shows. La Fortaleza Presents. Date Offer: Everyday A Week Welcome to La Fortaleza Restaurant Garfield! Come with your family or . La fuerza intro latino dating statistical Mechanics. Dissertations Theses from. Walker Lets Customer Gape Her Aged Hole. Free homemade beastiality fun movie.
Through the night Davis, T. A stunning documentary, filmed over the course of ten days, following four men into the world of illegal border-crossing from Mexico to United States.
Fighting dehydration and exhaustion while evading the U. Border Patrol through sub-zero temperature darkness of night, filled with barbed wire, brutal storms and the ever-present confrontation with death, they endure unimaginable hardship that is reality for tens of thousands of illegal immigrants who make a similar journey into the United States every year.
A portrait of Mexican immigration to the Midwest that examines issues of assimilation, class structure, language, and ethics on both sides of the border. New audiences for Mexican music Films Media Group. New audiences for Mexican music. The first part of this program describes the phenomenally popular dance music, Banda, that originated in Mexico over a century ago. The music features the sounds of wind instruments and drums from the last century and mixes in modern electronic rhythms.
The second part of the program explains the history of mariachi music, and shows the young performers from the Texas-based Campanas de America mixing mariachi with country music.
Part three of the program profiles Tejano music, popularized by the late singer Selena. New world border Palafox, J. Progressive Films Berkeley, Calif. Documents the rise in human rights abuses along the U. Includes interviews with immigrant rights organizers, testimony from immigrants, analysis of "free trade" policies and current efforts to build a vibrant movement for immigrant rights. Latinos in North Carolina Hershfield, J. Latinos in North Carolina.
- A la fuerza ahorcan (literally, They hang people by force)
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Examines the Latino population explosion in North Carolina. Several Hispanic Americans introduce themselves, tell where they are from and why they came to North Carolina.
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Many describe monetary hardships in their native countries as well as financial difficulties they experienced when they came to the United States, and others recount their success stories as residents of North Carolina. El otro lado Walker, C. Over the last century, hundreds of thousands of Mexicans have crossed the border to the United States in pursuit of permanent jobs, and a better life. But in the new millennium, that journey has become increasingly dangerous, and the costs are starting to outweigh the benefits.
The people who attempt to cross suffer horribly and frequently die. The families and communities left behind are disabled and their languages and cultures are being destroyed. The Other Side tells the story of the villagers who have had enough -- and now are trying to make sure their children will no longer have to migrate to realize their dreams.
Instituto Municipal de Arte y Cultura. Compilation of brief capsule histories looking at episodes in the history of Tijuana, B. Also looks at Tijuana's status as a border and tourist town, and at its arts, institutions, and geography.
Includes historical photographs, postcards, and film footage, along with images of Tijuana today. National security and immigration reform Koppel, T. National security and immigration reform. Interviews with Arizona border patrol agents evoke their frustrations and reveal the perils faced by many Mexicans who attempt desperate wilderness crossings. Contrasts between President Bush's proposed guest worker program and the Department of Homeland Security's efforts to crack down on the influx of illegal aliens highlight the complexity of the situation.
He repeatedly demanded that the authorities honor the Bill of Rights, as well as the safeguards for property and cultural rights codified in the peace treaty with Mexico, but his indignation grew as the civil and property rights of Californios were not being protected.
Instead, he observed widespread discrimination and the Californios being despoiled of their lands and subjected to vigilante justice in what he called a "lynchocracy. He was also disillusioned that slavery continued to exist in the U. He became one of the first Latinos in history to analyze U.
This he achieved by reading some 50 newspapers a week in three languages as he was trilingual—Spanish, English, and French—delivered by steam ship to Los Angeles from throughout South and Central America, as well as coming west via stage coach. By the time he shuttered the paper, he had developed a transnational consciousness even to the extent of promoting Pan Hispanism.
It was an odyssey that led him to embrace the broadest Latin American constituency. The recent conquests effected in Mexico, dismembering half of the national territory, the scandalous events in Central America, the unjust initiatives against the natives of Panama in New Granada Colombiathe protests from Las Aves Island in Venezuela, the Galapagos in Ecuador and Lobris in Peru, the initiatives against the Antilles, be they through force of arms or through separatist movements, which in the language of morality spoken by nations is the ultimate expression of ignominy, etc.
Is that fusion of peoples and languages, customs and religions a practical base on which to establish one lone people made up of one hundred different nations, absorbing the Latin states and broadening continental democracy to the detriment of its neighbors' interests? A well-to-do southern California landholder, married to as U.
Army officer, Ruiz de Burton wrote under a pseudonym, "C. Loyal," that revealed neither her ethnicity nor her gender—her correspondence reveals her life-long opprobrium of societal limits on women. She also criticized racial and cultural discrimination, even among the abolitionists of the North.
He traveled extensively in the Jim Crow South and reported on segregation and lynchings of blacks. With only a high school education obtained after moving to New York inSchomburg became the secretary of the Cuban and Puerto Rican revolutionary organization, Las Dos Antillas The Two Antilles ; he was also the secretary for Latino Masonic lodges.
Schomburg soon became the greatest bibliographer of the African diaspora to that point, wrote books and articles, and amassed the world's largest, multilingual library dealing with African culture in the U.
The knowledge he collected, analyzed, and disseminated has been seen as one of the catalytic elements of the Harlem Renaissance cultural movement before World War II. Many Afro-Caribbeans had been stigmatized by race in both the islands and on U. Inhe became president of the prestigious American Negro Academy, and today, his extensive collection of African diaspora materials form the core of the New York Public Library's Division of Negro Literature, History, and Prints. Schomburg once wrote that, "History must restore what slavery took away from the Negro, his glorious past to act as stimulation for inspiration for him.
Pride of race is the antidote for prejudice. In the 20th century, it was an Afro-Puerto Rican who brought the nationalist struggle to the forefront of American consciousness: Pedro Albizu Campos He reinvigorated the independence movement and became an outspoken critic of racial discrimination both in Puerto Rico and on the continent. A Harvard-educated lawyer who had served in the U. Army during World War I, he became a member of the Nationalist Party in Puerto Rico and, inhe assumed the presidency of the party.
Under his direction, the party supported labor organizing and helped win various strikes, but official suppression intensified even to the extent of a massacre by police inand, inthe killing of various leaders and the arrest of Albizu Campos for breaking U.
He was imprisoned at the federal penitentiary in Atlanta untiland his U. He was arrested once again, inwhen the nationalists attacked the residence of President Harry S Truman, but his sentence was suspended inonly to be renewed in when the nationalists shot up the House of Representatives; he remained a prisoner, although one who had suffered a massive stroke and was hospitalized, until his death in Albizu Campos equated the status of Puerto Rico to enslavement by the U.
His speech in Lares, Septembereloquently stated this concept: One cannot give a speech while the newborn of our country are dying of hunger, while the adolescents of our country are being poisoned with the worst virus, slavery. While the adults of our homeland must leave Lares their hometown and don't even have exit to foreign countries different from the enemy power that binds us.
American Latino Theme Study: Intellectual Traditions
They must go to the U. One cannot give a speech easily while this tyrant has the power to tear sons out of the hearts of Puerto Rican mothers to go to Korea, into hell to be killed, to be the murderers of innocent Koreans Peralesin San Antonio, Texas. Perales was among the veterans returning from both world wars, where they had received the most casualties and earned the most medlas for valor, to demand the rights they were netitled to as American citizens. An indefatigable orator and writer for more than 50 years, Perales published newspaper columns, had a radio broadcast, and published three volumes of essays and speeches, besides maintaining an active life as an unpaid lobbyist for the advancement of Mexican Americans through fighting for their constitutional rights and education.
Perales insisted that Mexican Americans should retain their culture while maintaining their American citizenship. What we long for is the respect of our unalienable rights and privileges. We would like equality of opportunity in the various battlegrounds of life as well as before courts of justice. We would like for persons of Mexican descent in violation of the laws that govern the country to be tried before a competent Court of Justice and not to be lynched [ We do not want to be ousted, as is frequently done, with the mere excuse of our racial origin.
In one word, we ask for justice and the opportunity to prosper. It was another movement leader, often unheralded because of the male-oriented politics of Chicano nationalism, who in reality became both a spokesperson and critic of the nationalist politics of the Mexican American civil rights movement of the s and early '70s: She was a tireless enemy of discrimination, racism, and sexism, while seeking to mediate feminism within a nationalist ideology. She was convinced that cultural nationalism did not have to be a restrictive and constraining ideology for women.
Rather, she criticized how the male construction of cultural nationalism equated tradition with women's subordination. It gave us a myth This made us a tribe," she has stated. If the struggle to realize the promises of democracy and republican statehood was long and gave rise to much of the intellectual thought of Latinos in the U.
Even Ruiz de Burton used a pseudonym and only openly addressed gender discrimination in her private correspondence. Nevertheless, there were Latinas who assumed intellectual, creative, and activist roles at first within the areas assigned to women in publications and later in their own newspapers, magazines, and books. They were never as numerous as the thousands of males who wrote and were published, taking for granted their access to and domination of the means of intellectual and artistic production.
Many of the women's names are lost to history because of the anonymity or pseudonymity that was part of their strategy for access; other names are only now being recovered, even though these women published side by side, on the same pages, or in the same periodicals, with males. Through their cultivation at times of unconventional writing genres, such as cookbooks, personal narratives, and the re-telling of folklore, they offered a counter history to Manifest Destiny and proved that a worthy and legitimate civilization existed in the Southwest before Anglo-American expansion.
PRLS 1001 Introduction to Puerto Rican and Latino Studies: Films/Documentaries
Among the most militant women to have graced American soil were the anarcho-syndicalists who participated in laying the foundations for the Mexican Revolution of While their primary mission was the freeing of Mexico from an iron-fisted dictatorship and the creation of a just and open society in Mexico, their leadership on American soil influenced the existing labor movements and created a model of women's activism in the U.
Sisters Andrea and Teresa Villarreal ? Volad, volad al campo de batalla" What are you doing here, men? Another practitioner of this third-space feminism who, as a fervent anarchist, did not subscribe to nationalist projects and did not believe in social classes or borders, but nevertheless joined the PLM, was Colombian Blanca de Moncaleano ByBlanca de Moncaleano and her husband opened up and ran the Casa del Obrero Internacional The International Workers' House in Los Angeles, where she edited the women's anarchist newspaper Pluma Roja Red Penwhich was known for its virile writing style, figuratively donning men's pants.
Beyond attacking patriarchal society, state, and the Church, Moncaleano was severely critical of revolutionary men not conscious of their own suppression and enslavement of women. She is not on this earth only to procreate, to wash dishes, and to wash clothes. She soon became an intellectual leader in the border town. Inshe founded a short-lived literary magazine, Aurora; she died that same year, probably of tuberculosis.
It was another PLM co-conspirator in Laredo, however, who became the personification of writing and militancy, the women's version of the "pen and the sword": Villegas was born in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, but since the age of five had lived in Laredo, where her father administered his ranching, import-export, and other businesses.
Within a couple of years, she recruited Texas Anglo and Mexican women for her nursing corps, the Cruz Blanca White Crosswhich worked on the battlefields as part of Venustiano Carranza's Constitutionalist Army.
Serving often at Carranza's side, she was like a general to her nurses, and often as well to the female spies and fighters soldaderas who rendered service.
Spanish Saying: 'A la fuerza ahorcan' - They hang people by force
When the major hostilities were over and men began taking account of and writing the history of the revolution, Villegas became aware that the important role women had played was soon being forgotten. She, therefore, wrote her memoir, La rebelde, to correct the record and celebrate the leadership and contributions of women. Despite all of her and her families' connections in the political and business spheres in Mexico, no house would publish her story.
She then decided to re-write, not translate, the story in English as The Rebel and met a similar fate with publishers in the U. Only recently have these memoirs been published, under the editorship of scholar Clara Lomas, who has stated, "These narratives stand as one of the few perspectives written by women in the early s on the Mexican Revolution.
They document the pivotal role of border activism that in effect erases geopolitical boundaries. Even though her books were not published in her lifetime, they serve as an example today of a feminism that transcended borders, both of gender and geo-politics. By far, the most productive anarchist writer was not university-educated, not a political exile, nor involved in armed insurrection but a transmigrant who worked as a labor organizer in the islands of the Caribbean, Tampa, Florida, and Long Island, New York: Puerto Rican Luisa Capetillo Unlike Villegas, Capetillo was largely self-educated and belonged to the working class that the aforementioned women intellectuals aspired to liberate.
Perhaps this partially explains her more radical embrace of anarchism's anti-nationalist program and its goal for a classless society in which there was absolute equality of the sexes.
Born in Puerto Rico and raised by autodidact, unwed working-class parents, Capetillo was politicized from a young age, especially by her mother who participated in literary and study groups often as the only female in attendance. An almost exclusively male profession in cigar factories on the island and the continent, the lector would spend half the day reading newspapers to the workers and the other half reading a variety of matter, including the works of Kropotkin and Bakunin and other theorists of anarchism and socialism.
Her mission to educate workers as to their human rights and as to participation in the social revolution that would remake world culture was not limited to the factory readings but eventually extended to her newspaper articles, her plays, and her books, including the following: She also founded and edited a magazine entitled La Mujer Woman.
In her personal life as in her writing, Capetillo was iconoclastic, refusing the authority of males, the Church, and the state; deconstructing and criticizing patriotism; working for women's suffrage; and advocating free love. Puerto Rican writer Clotilde Betances de Jaeger ? After receiving her B. She would spend the rest of her life in New York, teaching and producing an important body of feminist thought, as well as religious writing, in a broad range of periodicals not only published in the city but also in Spanish America and Spain.
Betances took the women's fashion and beauty beat as a foothold into the male-dominated media, a foothold that she subsequently transformed into a space for the exploration of feminist issues. In Grafico, which became her primary forum for more than 50 columns she penned in andshe took on such issues as the new role of women in society, especially exploring the implications of her having won the vote in the U. In her columns, she would comment on city and national politics, presidential campaigns, international affairs, and war, which she denounced repeatedly.
In her June 15, column, she analyzed how women's liberation was intimately linked to the economy and that in a time of crisis, like the onset of the Depression, it was incumbent on women to educate themselves and become consciously involved in the economy: The economy of the home is part of your jurisdiction; the economy of the world is your heritage.
While she advocated Puerto Rican independence from the U.