The Taming of the Shrew - Wikipedia
Does The Taming of the Shrew advocate sexual inequality or does it not represented in the play, is shown in Franco Zeffirelli's film. The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written .. Efforts to establish the play's date of composition are complicated by its uncertain relationship with another Elizabethan play with an (). The Taming of the Shrew. The New Penguin Shakespeare. London: Penguin. We will first look at The Taming of the Shrew starring Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton. . an overprotective and paranoid father who won't let Bianca date until boy-hating Kat does. . The Internet Movie Database. Franco Zeffirelli. Perf.
Schwoerer illustration of Act 4, Scene 1 Petruchio rejects the bridal dinner. Engraved by Georg Goldberg c. InJan Harold Brunvand argued that the main source for the play was not literary, but the oral folktale tradition. Brunvand discovered oral examples of Type spread over thirty European countries, but he could find only 35 literary examples, leading him to conclude "Shakespeare's taming plot, which has not been traced successfully in its entirety to any known printed version, must have come ultimately from oral tradition.
George Gascoigne 's English prose translation Supposes was performed in and printed in Erostrato disguises himself as Dulipo Tranioa servant, whilst the real Dulipo pretends to be Erostrato. Having done this, Erostrato is hired as a tutor for Polynesta. Meanwhile, Dulipo pretends to formally woo Polynesta so as to frustrate the wooing of the aged Cleander Gremio.
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Dulipo outbids Cleander, but he promises far more than he can deliver, so he and Erostrato dupe a travelling gentleman from Siena into pretending to be Erostrato's father, Philogano Vincentio.
However, when Polynesta is found to be pregnant, Damon has Dulipo imprisoned the real father is Erostrato. Soon thereafter, the real Philogano arrives, and all comes to a head.
Erostrato reveals himself, and begs clemency for Dulipo. Damon realises that Polynesta is truly in love with Erostrato, and so forgives the subterfuge. Having been released from jail, Dulipo then discovers he is Cleander's son. Date[ edit ] Efforts to establish the play's date of composition are complicated by its uncertain relationship with another Elizabethan play with an almost identical plot but different wording and character names, A Pleasant Conceited Historie, called the taming of a Shrew.
Different theories suggest A Shrew could be a reported text of a performance of The Shrew, a source for The Shrew, an early draft possibly reported of The Shrew, or an adaptation of The Shrew.
A terminus ante quem for A Shrew seems to be Augustas a stage direction at 3. Knack features several passages common to both A Shrew and The Shrew, but it also borrows several passages unique to The Shrew.
This suggests The Shrew was on stage prior to June Oliver suggests the play was composed no later than He bases this on the title page of A Shrew, which mentions the play had been performed "sundry times" by Pembroke's Men.
When the London theatres were closed on 23 June due to an outbreak of plaguePembroke's Men went on a regional tour to Bath and Ludlow. The tour was a financial failure, and the company returned to London on 28 September, financially ruined. Over the course of the next three years, four plays with their name on the title page were published; Christopher Marlowe 's Edward II published in quarto in Julyand Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus published in quarto inThe True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York published in octavo in and The Taming of a Shrew published in quarto in May Oliver says it is a "natural assumption" that these publications were sold by members of Pembroke's Men who were broke after the failed tour.
Oliver assumes that A Shrew is a reported version of The Shrew, which means The Shrew must have been in their possession when they began their tour in June, as they didn't perform it upon returning to London in September, nor would they have taken possession of any new material at that time.
She focuses on the closure of the theatres on 23 Junearguing that the play must have been written prior to June for it to have given rise to A Shrew.
Secondly, Elam suggests that Shakespeare derived his Italian idioms and some of the dialogue from Florio's Second Fruits, a bilingual introduction to Italian language and culture. Elam argues that Lucentio's opening dialogue, Tranio, since for the great desire I had To see fair Padua, nursery of arts, I am arrived for fruitful Lombardy, The pleasant garden of great Italy.
Elam's arguments suggest The Shrew must have been written bywhich places the date of composition around — Greg has demonstrated that A Shrew and The Shrew were treated as the same text for the purposes of copyrighti. There are five main theories as to the nature of this relationship: The two plays are unrelated other than the fact that they are both based on another play which is now lost. This is the Ur-Shrew theory in reference to Ur-Hamlet. A Shrew is an early draft of The Shrew.
Oliver suggests, there are "passages in [A Shrew] [ In The Shrew, the Christopher Sly framework is only featured twice; at the opening of the play, and at the end of Act 1, Scene 1.
Pope added most of the Sly framework to The Shrew, even though he acknowledged in his preface that he did not believe Shakespeare had written A Shrew.
By comparing seven passages which are similar in both plays, he concluded "the original conception is invariably to be found" in The Shrew. He reached this conclusion primarily because A Shrew features numerous lines almost identical to lines in Marlowe's Tamburlaine and Dr.
Instead he labelled A Shrew a bad quarto. His main argument was that, primarily in the subplot of A Shrew, characters act without motivation, whereas such motivation is present in The Shrew. Alexander believed this represents an example of a "reporter" forgetting details and becoming confused, which also explains why lines from other plays are used from time to time; to cover gaps which the reporter knows have been left.
Chamberswho reasserted the source theory. Its textual relation to The Shrew does not bear any analogy to that of other 'bad Quartos' to the legitimate texts from which they were memorised. The nomenclaturewhich at least a memoriser can recall, is entirely different. The verbal parallels are limited to stray phrases, most frequent in the main plot, for which I believe Shakespeare picked them up from A Shrew.
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InLeo Kirschbaum made a similar argument. In an article listing over twenty examples of bad quartos, Kirschbaum did not include A Shrew, which he felt was too different from The Shrew to come under the bad quarto banner; "despite protestations to the contrary, The Taming of a Shrew does not stand in relation to The Shrew as The True Tragedie, for example, stands in relation to 3 Henry VI.
Alexander's theory continued to be challenged as the years went on. Houk developed what came to be dubbed the Ur-Shrew theory; both A Shrew and The Shrew were based upon a third play, now lost. Duthie refined Houk's suggestion by arguing A Shrew was a memorial reconstruction of Ur-Shrew, a now lost early draft of The Shrew; "A Shrew is substantially a memorially constructed text and is dependent upon an early Shrew play, now lost.
The Shrew is a reworking of this lost play. Duthie argues this other version was a Shakespearean early draft of The Shrew; A Shrew constitutes a reported text of a now lost early draft. In particular, he concentrated on the various complications and inconsistencies in the subplot of A Shrew, which had been used by Houk and Duthie as evidence for an Ur-Shrew, to argue that the reporter of A Shrew attempted to recreate the complex subplot from The Shrew but got confused; "the compiler of A Shrew while trying to follow the subplot of The Shrew gave it up as too complicated to reproduce, and fell back on love scenes in which he substituted for the maneuvers of the disguised Lucentio and Hortensio extracts from Tamburlaine and Faustus, with which the lovers woo their ladies.
Morris summarised the scholarly position in as one in which no clear-cut answers could be found; "unless new, external evidence comes to light, the relationship between The Shrew and A Shrew can never be decided beyond a peradventure.
Three Versions of The Taming of the Shrew
It will always be a balance of probabilities, shifting as new arguments and opinions are added to the scales. Nevertheless, in the present century, the movement has unquestionably been towards an acceptance of the Bad Quarto theory, and this can now be accepted as at least the current orthodoxy.
The Early Quartos series. Miller agrees with most modern scholars that A Shrew is derived from The Shrew, but he does not believe it to be a bad quarto. When we see Petruchio for the first time, we believe that he is only interested in Katharina for the money. He says it best himself: Signor Hortensio, twixt such friends as we Few words suffice. I come to wive it wealthily in Padua; If wealthily, then happily in Padua.
Shakespeare 13, Act I scene ii, lines 64 — 75 When Petruchio first sees Katharina, we find out how he plans to woo her. Petruchio talks to himself in a window. We see however that the window is barred in a diamond shaped pattern, suggesting that Petruchio is just as trapped in his situation as Katharina.
Katharina shows up at the house covered in snow, dripping wet and cold. She looks cold, tired and hungry and also looks as if she has not rested in several days.
Katharina is getting used to being a housewife, she takes care of everything around the house and starts to get everything set up as it should look. She cleans things and make sure that everything is run properly. During this time she is also challenging Petruchio, he will challenge her back later when they find out that Bianca is going to wed Lucentio. He shows her beautiful caps and gowns that he had especially designed for her, and when he sees that she is pleased, as he knows that she will be, he precedes to tare everything apart in front of her eyes instating that nothing is good enough for her.
Throughout this little scene we see that Kate and Petruchio are still challenging each other. They both behave themselves at the dinner and many of the men and women that are attending the wedding of Lucentio and Bianca are making fun of her for not being a typical renaissance woman. And now you know my meaning. A very mean meaning. Right, I mean you. Three of the men, Lucentio married to Bianca, Hortensio married to the widow, and Petruchio married to Katharina make a bet, of four thousand crowns, with one another that their each of their wives will be more submissive than the others.
It is Katharina only that appears when she is called showing up both Bianca and the widow. In the movie after she appears she exits again and when she reenters she is seen dragging the widow and Bianca, with the rest of the women following her. She will give her speech to the entire wedding party, saying that wives should be submissive and obedient to their husbands. She then kisses him and runs off, she shows him however in the course of the movie that she loves him but she is going to challenge him throughout their marriage, which is what both of them need to be happy and content.
Almost all of the dialogue from the film is taken verbatim from the play, all of the characters in the film come directly from the play and all of the plot points come directly from the play.
However, a great deal of material has been removed. The most noticeable omissions involve the Bianca Natasha Pyne subplot. In the play, every second scene deals with Bianca and the comic attempts of her suitors to colour her favour, as the play alternates between the Bianca story and the Petruchio Richard Burton and Katherina Elizabeth Taylor story.The Taming of The Shrew - Good Lord, how bright and goodly shines the moon!
In the film however, the Bianca plot very much takes a back seat; it is important at the start, but is then only intermittently seen until the end, where it once again becomes important for the last two scenes. Examples of scenes which have had material removed are: Both of these scenes are seen only at a glance in the film, as Petruchio is searching the Minola residence looking for Katherina. In the play, these two scenes are scenes onto themselves; ie they are not observed by another character.
As a result of this, Bianca, Hortensio, Gremio and Lucentio and Tranio all have much more dialogue in the play than in the film. As this indicates however, the flip side of removing so much of the Bianca material is that film spends considerably more time with Petruchio and Katherina than the play, albeit in scenes with little to no dialogue. Examples of scenes in the film with no counterpart in the play include the scene where Katherina watches Petruchio through the stained glass and smiles to herself; the scene where Petruchio finds Katherina sleeping and looks affectionately at her, and the scene where Katherina is helping Grumio Cyril Cusack with the housework.
The framework of the original play is also changed. As Shakespeare wrote it, The Taming of the Shrew is a play-within-a-play, performed by a troup of players for the amusement of Christopher Sly, a tinker who is being duped into thinking he is a lord. However, the framing device is regularly removed in stage productions of the play as well, so the film is not unique in this sense.
Other minor differences include: By and large, however, the film is reasonably faithful to the source. What happens to Hortensio's wooing of Bianca? This is a notorious crux in the play which remains a problem in the film. At the start of the film and the playBianca has two suitors: Soon after, Lucentio arrives and falls in love with Bianca.
He hears Baptista telling the two suitors that only tutors will be allowed access to his daughter, so both Hortensio and Lucentio come up with the same plan - to disguise themselves as tutors, thereby gaining access to the object of their affection unbeknownst to her father. Meanwhile, Lucentio instructs Tranio to attempt to formally woo Bianca through her father. The next we see of this situation, Hortensio as Litio and Lucentio as Cambio are tutoring Bianca, and at the same time, Tranio as Lucentio and Gremio are bidding for her.
The problem is, where is Hortensio in the bidding scene? Baptista knows that Hortensio is one of her suitors, as does Gremio, so why is he not present in the scene.