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Artificial insemination of livestock is accomplished using frozen semen. Joseph Murray performs the first kidney transplant between identical twins. An enzyme, DNA polymerase, involved in the synthesis of a nucleic acid, is isolated for the first time.
Jonas Salk develops the first polio vaccine. The development marks the first use of mammalian cells monkey kidney cells and the first application of cell culture technology to generate a vaccine.
Scientists prove that sickle-cell anemia occurs due to a change in a single amino acid in hemoglobin cells Arthur Kornberg of Washington University in St. Louis makes DNA in a test tube for the first time. Edward Tatum — and Joshua Lederberg — shared the Nobel Prize for showing that genes regulate the metabolism by producing specific enzymes. Scientists understand genetic code for the first time. Osamu Shimomura discovers the green fluorescent protein in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.
He later develops it into a tool for observing previously invisible cellular processes. Samuel Katz and Dr. Enders develop the first vaccine for measles. The existence of reverse transcriptase is predicted. The recombination of existing genes, or eugenics. The production of new genes by a process of directed mutation, or genetic engineering.
The first automatic protein sequencer is perfected. Maurice Hilleman develops the first American vaccine for mumps. An enzyme is synthesized in vitro for the first time. The first vaccine for rubella is developed.
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Restriction enzymes are discovered. Cohen and Boyer perform the first successful recombinant DNA experiment, using bacterial genes. Kohler and Milestein in came up with the concept of cytoplasmic hybridization and produced the first ever monoclonal antibodies, which has revolutionized diagnostics.
Techniques for producing monoclonal antibodies were developed in Colony hybridization and Southern blotting are developed for detecting specific DNA sequences. Molecular hybridization is used for the prenatal diagnosis of alpha thalassemia.
Recombinant human insulin is produced for the first time. Human growth hormone is synthesized for the first time. In the ss, the path of biotechnology became intertwined with that of genetics. By the s, biotechnology grew into a promising real industry. Smallpox is globally eradicated following year mass vaccination effort. InThe U. Chakrabarty, approved the principle of patenting genetically engineered life forms.
Scientists at Ohio University produce the first transgenic animals by transferring genes from other animals into mice. The first gene-synthesizing machines are developed. The first genetically engineered plant is reported. The first recombinant DNA vaccine for livestock is developed. The first biotech drug, human insulin produced in genetically modified bacteria, is approved by FDA.
Genentech and Eli Lilly developed the product. This is followed by many new drugs based on biotechnologies. PCR, which uses heat and enzymes to make unlimited copies of genes and gene fragments, later becomes a major tool in biotech research and product development worldwide. The first artificial chromosome is synthesized. Inthe first genetic markers for specific inherited diseases were found. The first genetic transformation of plant cells by TI plasmids is performed.
Inthe DNA fingerprinting technique was developed. Genetic markers are found for kidney disease and cystic fibrosis. The first recombinant vaccine for humans, a vaccine for hepatitis B, is approved.
Interferon becomes the first anticancer drug produced through biotech.
University of California, Berkeley, chemist Dr. Peter Schultz describes how to combine antibodies and enzymes abzymes to create therapeutics.
The first pest-resistant corn, Bt corn, is produced. Congress funds the Human Genome Project, a massive effort to map and sequence the human genetic code as well as the genomes of other species. Inchymosin known as Rennin was the first enzyme produced from a genetically modified source-yeast-to be approved for use in food.
Inonly five proteins from genetically engineered cells had been approved as drugs by the United States Food and Drug Administration FDAbut this number would skyrocket to over by the end of the s. Inmicroorganisms were used to clean up the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The first successful gene therapy is performed on a 4-year-old girl suffering from an immune disorder.
The first breast cancer gene is discovered. Gene therapy, immune-system modulation and recombinantly produced antibodies enter the clinic in the war against cancer.
The first baboon-to-human bone marrow transplant is performed on an AIDS patient. The first vaccine for Hepatitis A is developed. The first genetically engineered crop is commercialized. The first human artificial chromosome is created. A rough draft of the human genome map is produced, showing the locations of more than 30, genes.
Premaling Pathology of Esophagus: Esophageal Melanocytosis
Human skin is produced for the first time in the lab. The complete genetic code of the human chromosome is deciphered. Kenya field-tests its first biotech crop, virus-resistant sweet potato. Craig Venter, inwas able to sequence the human genome. The sequence of the human genome is published in Science and Nature, making it possible for researchers all over the world to begin developing treatments. Gleevec is the first gene-targeted drug to receive FDA approval.
EPA approves the first transgenic rootworm-resistant corn. The banteng, an endangered species, is cloned for the first time. The Human Genome Project completes sequencing of the human genome. UN Food and Agriculture Organization endorses biotech crops, stating biotechnology is a complementary tool to traditional farming methods that can help poor farmers and consumers in developing nations.
The Energy Policy Act is passed and signed into law, authorizing numerous incentives for bioethanol development. The National Institutes of Health begins a year, 10,patient study using a genetic test that predicts breast-cancer recurrence and guides treatment.
Inthe artist Stelarc had an ear grown in a vat and grafted onto his arm. FDA approves the H5N1 vaccine, the first vaccine approved for avian flu. Scientists discover how to use human skin cells to create embryonic stem cells. Chemists in Japan create the first DNA molecule made almost entirely of artificial parts. Global biotech crop acreage reaches million acres. EM is a rare benign disease characterized by melanocytic proliferation of squamous epithelium of the esophagus and melanin deposition in the mucosa.
Normally, the esophagus mucosa does not contain melanocytes. However, it is suggested that the melanoctyes result from the differentiation of stem cells in the basal layer due to the chronic inflammative and aberrant melanocyte migration or reflux esophagitis RE during embryogenesis [ 2 ]. Although EM is accepted as benign in general, some studies report it as the precursor lesion of primary esophageal melanoma and can be found along with esophageal malignancy [ 12 ].
They are rare and they are determined on 0.Why Do Some People Become Alcoholics?
It is more frequently reported in autopsy series 2. In this case report, we review a case of EM with reference to the literature.
Is the Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Part of Metabolic Syndrome? | OMICS International
Case Presentation Our first patient 54; Our second patient was 53 years old. Both of our patients presented with intermittent symptoms of water brash, dysphagia, dyspepsia and epigastric pain for approximately 5 years.
Both patients had never used alcohol or cigarettes before. They are usually fed with animal nutrients. Endoscopy was not performed in both patients before. At the endoscopy of our first patient, linear melanocytosis regions between cm on esophagus, RE Los Angeles grade Balkaline reflux pangastritis, duodenitis were determined. At the endoscopy of our second patient, linear multiple melanocytosis regions between cm on esophagus, RE Los Angeles grade Bpangastritis, duodenitis were determined Figures 1 and 2.
EM revealed dark-colored brown and blacklinear, punctuate various shapes, and varying sizes, between 2 and 10 mm, of flat hyper pigmentation focuses.
Multiple biopsies were conducted. Biochemical tests were normal. There was no pathology in the radiological examinations such as thorax x-ray and abdominal sonography. Endoscopic view of esophageal melanocytosis. EM was determined in histopathological examination. Condensed lymphocytic infiltration in the supportive tissues belonging to lamina propria located under squamous trait acanthotic and intercellular edemas were observed covering the laminated epithelium.
Numerous condensed melanin-laden histiocytes were detected in the histopathologic examination Figure 3. Few melanocytes were observed in the esophagus basal layer. Anti-reflux and HP eradication therapy were provided and the patients were treated. As a maintenance therapy, patients were treated with a proton pump inhibitor and a reflux diet.
After one year endoscopy and histopathological examination results were stable. Every year a control endoscopy is planned That patient's written consent form was obtained. Esophageal mucosal melanocytosis melanin-laden histiocytes. Discussion The process of melanocytogenesis in normal skin prevents the damage of intracellular lipids, proteins, and nucleotides by neutralizing reactive oxygen molecules. Melanocytogenesis also functions as an antioxidant defense barrier in the upper GIST [ 2 ].
Smoking causes chronic destruction of mucosa in the upper GIST. Another report from Iran showed the presence of EM in a patient smoking opium [ 4 ]. In previous researches; melanocytes were found in the epithelio-stromal junction in 7. There were no significant differences in incidence between males and females [ 5 ]. Multivariate analysis showed that older age, heavy smoking, and alcohol associated with the presence of melanocytosis [ 25 ]. Keratinocytes, which are reproduced by epithelial proliferation and stimulated by various factors, induce melanocytogenesis through autocrine and paracrine effects.
Lifestyle habits such as chronic alcohol consumption, smoking addiction, and nutritional habits and hereditary factors can be related to melanocytogenesis progression because it is associated with neoplastic processes [ 2 - 5 ].